ISSUR VE-HETTER

ISSUR VE-HETTER, a term designating the totality of halakhic rulings with regard to forbidden foods and related topics. From the second half of the 12th century, however, it came to be used for a specific literary genre dealing with this subject, and from that time books wholly devoted to this topic were produced in great numbers (the Issur ve-Hetter of Rashi is not to be included among them, since it belongs to a completely different category; see rashi ). The creation of this type of literature is connected with the spread of Jewish settlement in Germany. This gave rise to the development of different customs in various spheres of life, including to no small degree topics of issur ve-hetter. There is indeed no doubt that issur ve-hetter literature should be regarded as a branch of the more comprehensive literary genre known as minhagim literature. Research into the issur ve-hetter literature is complicated. The authors of many of the books are anonymous or have been erroneously identified; in addition, many glosses and notes were added to the original text of works by copyists and other scholars who wanted to adapt them to the local prevailing custom; a large part of this literature is still in manuscript in different libraries, at times wrongly catalogued. Among the most important works of this subject are the Sefer ha-She'arim or Sha'arei Dura, called " Issur ve-Hetter, " by isaac b. meir of dueren (Cracow, 1534), which is seemingly the earliest work of this type; 36 She'arim on laws of issur ve-hetter by israel isserlein , apart from his glosses on the Sha'arei Dura; the laws of issur ve-hetter at the end of the Minhagei Maharil (Sabionetta, 1556) which is an abridgment of the Sha'arei Dura, as is the Torat Ḥattat (Cracow n.d., c. 1570) of moses isserles . The well-known Issur ve-Hetter he-Arokh (Ferrara, 1555), attributed in error to jonah gerondi but apparently compiled by Jonah Ashkenazi, a pupil of Israel Isserlein, contains, besides laws on forbidden foods, laws connected with the duty of saving life. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ta-Shema, in: Sinai, 64 (1969), 254–7. (Israel Moses Ta-Shma)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • ANAV, ZEDEKIAH BEN ABRAHAM — (13th century), Italian talmudist; author of the compendium, Shibbolei ha Leket ( The Gleaned Ears ), which can perhaps be considered the first attempt in Italy at the codification of Jewish law. Although Zedekiah s exact dates are unknown, he… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • HALICZ — (Heb. הֶעֶלִיץ, Helicz, Halic, Helic), family of printers in Cracow in the 16th century. Three brothers, Samuel, Asher, and Elyakim, sons of Ḥayyim Halicz, established Poland s first Jewish press there in about 1530. Their name indicates that the …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • DINA DE-MALKHUTA DINA — (Aram. דִּינָא דְּמַלְכוּתָא דִּינָא), the halakhic rule that the law of the country is binding, and, in certain cases, is to be preferred to Jewish law. The problem of dina de malkhuta dina is similar to – but not identical with – the problem of …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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